Exercise 48: Advanced User Input
Your game probably was coming along great, but I bet how you handled what the user typed was becoming tedious. Each room needed its own very exact set of phrases that only worked if your player typed them perfectly. What you'd rather have is a device that lets users type phrases in various ways. For example, we'd like to have all of these phrases work the same:
- open door
- open the door
- go THROUGH the door
- punch bear
- Punch The Bear in the FACE
It should be alright for a user to write something a lot like English for your game, and have your game figure out what it means. To do this, we're going to write a module that does just that. This module will have a few classes that work together to handle user input and convert it into something your game can work with reliably.
In a simple version of English the following elements:
- Words separated by spaces.
- Sentences composed of the words.
- Grammar that structures the sentences into meaning.
That means the best place to start is figuring out how to get words from the user and what kinds of words those are.
Our Game Lexicon
In our game we have to create a lexicon of words:
- Direction words: north, south, east, west, down, up, left, right, back.
- Verbs: go, stop, kill, eat.
- Stop words: the, in, of, from, at, it
- Nouns: door, bear, princess, cabinet.
- Numbers: any string of 0 through 9 characters.
When we get to nouns, we have a slight problem since each room could have a different set of nouns, but let's just pick this small set to work with for now and improve it later.
Breaking Up a Sentence
Once we have our lexicon of words we need a way to break up sentences so that we can figure out what they are. In our case, we've defined a sentence as "words separated by spaces," so we really just need to do this:
stuff = raw_input('> ') words = stuff.split()
That's really all we'll worry about for now, but this will work really well for quite a while.
Once we know how to break up a sentence into words, we just have to go through the list of words and figure out what "type" they are. To do that we're going to use a handy little Python structure called a "tuple." A tuple is nothing more than a list that you can't modify. It's created by putting data inside two () with a comma, like a list:
first_word = ('direction', 'north') second_word = ('verb', 'go') sentence = [first_word, second_word]
This creates a pair (TYPE, WORD) that lets you look at the word and do things with it.
This is just an example, but that's basically the end result. You want to take raw input from the user, carve it into words with split, then analyze those words to identify their type, and finally make a sentence out of them.
Now you are ready to write your scanner. This scanner will take a string of raw input from a user and return a sentence that's composed of a list of tuples with the (TOKEN, WORD) pairings. If a word isn't part of the lexicon then it should still return the WORD but set the TOKEN to an error token. These error tokens will tell users they messed up.
Here's where it gets fun. I'm not going to tell you how to do this. Instead I'm going to write a unit test and you are going to write the scanner so that the unit test works.
Exceptions and Numbers
There is one tiny thing I will help you with first, and that's converting numbers. In order to do this though, we're going to cheat and use exceptions. An exception is an error that you get from some function you may have run. What happens is your function "raises" an exception when it encounters an error, then you have to handle that exception. For example, if you type this into Python:
~/projects/simplegame $ python Python 2.6.5 (r265:79063, Apr 16 2010, 13:57:41) [GCC 4.4.3] on linux2 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> int("hell") Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: 'hell' >>
That ValueError is an exception that the int() function threw because what you handed int() is not a number. The int() function could have returned a value to tell you it had an error, but since it only returns integers, it'd have a hard time doing that. It can't return -1 since that's a number. Instead of trying to figure out what to return when there's an error, the int() function raises the ValueError exception and you deal with it.
You deal with an exception by using the try and except keywords:
def convert_number(s): try: return int(s) except ValueError: return None
You put the code you want to "try" inside the try block, and then you put the code to run for the error inside the except. In this case, we want to "try" to call int() on something that might be a number. If that has an error, then we "catch" it and return None.
In your scanner that you write, you should use this function to test if something is a number. You should also do it as the last thing you check for before declaring that word an error word.
What You Should Test
Here are the files from tests/lexicon_tests.py that you should use:
Remember that you will want to make a new project with your skeleton, type in this test case (do not copy-paste!) and write your scanner so that the test runs. Focus on the details and make sure everything works right.
Focus on getting one test working at a time. Keep this simple and just put all the words in your lexicon in lists that are in your lexicon.py module. Do not modify the input list of words, but instead make your own new list with your lexicon tuples in it. Also, use the in keyword with these lexicon lists to check if a word is in the lexicon.
- Improve the unit test to make sure you cover more of the lexicon.
- Add to the lexicon and then update the unit test.
- Make sure your scanner handles user input in any capitalization and case. Update the test to make sure this actually works.
- Find another way to convert the number.
- My solution was 37 lines long. Is yours longer? Shorter?
Common Student Questions
- Why do I keep getting ImportErrors?
- Import errors are caused by usually four things. 1. You didn't make a __init__.py in a directory that has modules in it. 2. you are in the wrong directory. 3. You are importing the wrong module because you spelled it wrong. 4. Your PYTHONPATH isn't set to . so you can't load modules from your current directory.
- What's the difference between try-except and if-else?
- The try-expect construct is only used for handling exceptions that modules can throw. It should never be used as an alternative to if-else.
- Is there a way to keep the game running while the user is waiting to type?
- I'm assuming you want to have a monster attack users if they don't react quick enough. It is possible but it involves modules and techniques that are outside of this book's domain.